By Cindy Ray
Pre-diabetes is a risk indicator that could develop into diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes if preventive measures are not taken. Pre-diabetes is a condition where blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough to be diabetes. It has almost no visible symptoms so it is important to know about the risk factors that could lead to diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Mellitus or type 2 Diabetes is a condition in which blood sugar is higher than normal. Diabetes mellitus happens when the body cannot make enough insulin or the insulin it produces does not work efficiently. Insulin is important hormone that takes glucose or sugar from the blood vessels into cells for energy. A lack of insulin results in the higher level of sugar in the blood that could ultimately damage nerves, blood vessels, kidney, heart, eyes and feet. Diabetes mellitus therefore becomes one of the most life threatening diseases of the current times.
Risk Factors of Pre-diabetes and Diabetes Mellitus or type 2 diabetes
• Family history of diabetes
• Family history of heart diseases and strokes
• Obesity and overweight
• Low level of physical activities
• High blood pressure
• High level of cholesterol
• Gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)
• Polycystic ovary syndrome
Diagnosis of Pre-diabetes and Diabetes Mellitus or type 2 diabetes
• Pre-diabetes and diabetes is diagnosed by testing blood for sugar/glucose level.
• If glucose level higher than normal is found in the blood, further tests (fasting and PP or oral glucose tolerance test ) need to be run in order to manage it efficiently.
• Fasting sugar test is done on empty stomach and blood sugar needs to be approximately between 70-110 mg/dl.
• OGTT or PP (post prandial) shows the range of glucose level in the blood. Blood test is taken after 2 hours of taking food and presence of sugar content indicates the efficiency of insulin that moves sugar from the blood to the cells for energy. The range of PP sugar should be approximately between 110-140 mg/dl
Managing Pre-diabetes and Diabetes Mellitus or type 2 diabetes
• Make lifestyle changes: it includes proper sleep and rest, regular exercise, healthy diet etc.
• Maintain proper weight and avoid overweight and obesity. It helps the body to make insulin properly that helps maintain your blood sugar.
• Physical activity: regular physical activities like walking/jogging for atleast 1-2 hours daily and exercising prevents the problems of overweight and help reduce blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure.
• Healthy diet: it includes fibre rich diet of fruits, salad, fresh juices etc. Avoid fast food and saturated oil.
• No smoking: smoking produces resistance to insulin that considerably increase the risk of higher sugar level in the blood.
• Blood pressure and cholesterol needs to be monitored diligently.